Welcome

I am an archivist and I help libraries, archives, and museums increase access to their cultural records by building solutions with my digital technologies knowledge, creativity from the performing arts, and Master of Library and Information Sciences career path.

I studied Animal Sciences at the University of Illinois, worked in a science research lab and then a science education non-profit where I first applied my web and database skills. After 10+ years of professional dancing, I returned to graduate school to obtain my Master of Library and Information Sciences degree with a focus in archives management. I am currently the Digital Archives Manager at the Los Angeles Philharmonic and Hollywood Bowl.

I enjoy supporting dance and performing arts scholastic initiatives with my MLIS and archives knowledge. Please feel free to email me directly.

Is there something that does it all?: Choosing a metadata management system

Early in our NDSR cohort chats, each resident agreed that our host site’s current metadata collecting and organizing practices could be improved. Many of us sought to find a database tool that could help our staff manage their data effectively.

KBOO is like many other organizations that keeps its archives information in multiple spreadsheets. Tapes that were digitized by a vendor were sent back with magnificent details on the digitization process—yet these details were not consolidated with the inventory. The original inventory did not document which items had digital files, or where the files were stored. File location information was not in any spreadsheet and had to be determined by asking staff. If anything happened to the preservation master files, there would have been no way to restore them or get them back, and perhaps nobody would have noticed. This is obviously a tragic example that nobody wants. It demonstrates what could happen if an archive doesn’t know how to maintain digital files.

Audiovisual archivist and technologist Dave Rice reminded me that the important work is for an archive to protect its media and metadata, regardless of a database system or not. Spreadsheets are perfectly acceptable since repositories of a range of sizes need solutions in a range of sizes. At KBOO, the spreadsheet system was not efficient. Excel doesn’t allow more than one person to edit the file at the same time to control versioning so new information would be created by volunteers and not folded into the master spreadsheet. The master record wasn’t kept up to date, and the proliferation of Excel sheets would have continued. Yes, Excel sheets work but KBOO’s use of them was not working. Google Sheets and Excel Online didn’t handle KBOO’s large single spreadsheet very well. Could an easy to use database encourage staff to control and protect its metadata? I kept researching for a system that could make things better.

Kara Van Malssen, Partner & Senior Consultant at AVPreserve, gave our first NDSR webinar (it was excellent!). In a follow-up, I asked for some advice in my database search and she suggested that I prepare for comparing database systems by creating business requirements, functional requirements, and use cases. This information is necessary whenever an organization is thinking of engaging a tech developer or vendor. Small repositories often don’t have the time or archival perspective to ask useful questions about how it wants its data to be stored and accessed. Some developer/vendors work with the organizations (at cost) to determine what the needs are. I suggested that KBOO could determine their needs in-house, it would take time, but no additional cost (contact me if you’re curious to see them).

So, after documenting the requirements, the question was “Is there something that does it all?”

My perspective is that it is possible to do almost everything with technology. So the answer is yes, multiple people and companies could develop the system. However, the requirements are only one thing an organization has to document. KBOO also needed to document the availability of financial resources (up-front and ongoing) and commitment of staff time and knowledge (up-front and ongoing) required for ongoing maintenance of a system.

This is where the database comparison work began. I decided to research and compare several open-source and non-open source systems that support audiovisual records and archival metadata: systems as column headers and KBOO requirements as row headers (contact me if you’re curious to see it). I also gathered notes about up-front and ongoing costs and reached out to staff at institutions to get comments about their experience installing and maintaining their chosen system—this relates directly to up-front and ongoing costs. For open-source I looked at the activity level of the user base in finding solutions.

KBOO’s immediate needs are for managing its audio metadata in-house, preparing records for public searching, and opening up the records so that multiple staff and volunteers can see what we have and fix records with correct or additional information. I proposed ResourceSpace (on a Bitnami stack) installed on a network server for in-house use for several reasons that fit KBOO’s needs:
* Records can be imported and exported to/from csv
* Different security/access levels for administrator and volunteer/staff data entry
* More than one person can view and edit at a time
* Batch upload of media can associate files with existing records
* Database fields can be defined based on my PBCore data model
* Installation and set up is easy to understand
* Great documentation and very active user group
* More reasons (contact me if you’re curious)

Time will tell if KBOO will use and maintain the system into the future. Exporting back to csv actually is the most important from my perspective—the data is still flat. I will only be at KBOO until the end of May for the NDSR program, and KBOO does not have an archivist. The set-up of ResourceSpace is uncomplicated enough to set up with clear directions (which I’m writing), and if anything happens, KBOO can always turn the data back into the Excel format it is familiar with. ResourceSpace can be used for other potential archiving needs as determined by KBOO and a future archivist, but for now I’m keeping it simple to meet their current requirements.

So can ResourceSpace do it all? Well, it can do the specific things KBOO needs it for. ResourceSpace is still just a tool that a human uses. As such, it is a tool that a human needs to understand and take care of. I said earlier that almost anything can be done with technology. Human work can’t be replaced with computers. But—human work can be simplified with technology and computers. I hope this tool encourages work to be done more easily by many people.

What is metadata?

This is something I wrote for KBOO Community Radio volunteer hosts and programmers to allow understanding of how metadata is used in their digital preservation and archiving work, as part of the AAPB NDSR program.

Erin mentioned that the KBOO community has questions as to what metadata is. Simply put,

Metadata is a set of data that describes and gives information about other data.

metadataMetadata is information. That cup on the table? It’s red, it’s ceramic, it belongs to Alex, it was bought last week but was made long before that, when, we aren’t sure. These are all things that provide information about the cup. People who enter and manage metadata document the most important pieces of information about an item, depending on who they perceive will be looking for or learning about the item. At KBOO, like other libraries and archives, metadata is entered and structured in a specific way to be human and machine readable.

A human readable piece of metadata is a notes field that combines all the descriptive information we just discovered about that cup. “This cup is red, made of ceramic, it belongs to Alex, it was bought last week but was made long before that, when we aren’t sure.”

A machine can’t understand the contents of that notes field. How does metadata become machine readable? The first step is to follow a metadata schema. In the field of information science, different metadata schemas have been developed, each specific to certain kinds of data. Schemas provide definitions and meanings to metadata fields. At KBOO, the PBCore metadata schema is very useful. It was developed specifically for organizing and managing public broadcasting data elements, and makes sense for time-based media like audio and video. People managing information about print books don’t need metadata fields for duration or generations. People managing audio metadata would want to document the duration of the content, and whether the content is the edited version or broadcast version with promos: these fields are included in PBCore.

metadata-image-stevenjmiller

Image by Stephen J. Miller; I added PBCore to the mix. His web page on metadata resources is also excellent: https://people.uwm.edu/mll/metadata-resources/

PBCore is a national metadata standard. Specific definitions and rules ensure that content entered by different institutions in the same way can be shared. PBCore data held in an  XML document allows data to be transmitted across a number of fields and disciplines. It is both human and machine readable. In the absence of XML, many organizations use spreadsheets that can be transformed or edited to work with various systems.

It is KBOO’s intent, at the end of the NDSR program, to upload a first batch of audio content and metadata to the American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB). The AAPB’s metadata management system is a complex hierarchical database, and data must be formatted in a specific way. When metadata fields for KBOO’s audio metadata are formatted using the PBCore schema, multiple records can be uploaded into the AAPB’s system in a csv file. This takes advantage of the machine-readable definitions in the schema. If the metadata was not machine readable, a person would enter information manually: each metadata value for every field, for every record. Using standards and metadata schemas allows an archivist to let computers do the heavy-lifting.

Here are some examples of PBCore metadata fields:

pbcoreTitle is a name or label relevant to the asset.

Best practices: There may be many types of titles an asset may have, such as a series title, episode title, segment title, or project title, therefore the element is repeatable. Usage: required, repeatable.

Sensible and understandable, right? Here’s another:

essenceTrackSamplingRate measures how often data is sampled when information from the audio portion from an instantiation is digitized. For a digital audio signal, the sampling rate is measured in kilohertz and is an indicator of the perceived playback quality of the media item (the higher the sampling rate, the greater the fidelity). Usage: optional, not repeatable.

If you are a KBOO program host, you have encountered sample rate without knowing it. The autoarchive mp3 file that magically shows up on your episode page is encoded at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz. Audio archives keep track of the quality and type of digital files it has collected. Digitizing from open reel guidelines are 96kHz sample rate at a bit depth of 24.

Right now I’m keeping 43 fields of information for each audio item. A handful of these fields will become defunct, once the data in them is reviewed and unique metadata is moved into more appropriate fields. Erin and I decided that we would require a minimum of six fields for physical items: unique identifier, title, date, date type, format, and rights statement. With this minimum amount of information, KBOO would be able to know what an item is and what it can do with it. All metadata fields are important, but if we made all of them required, it would slow down the cataloging process due to unknown information or long research periods. Examples of non-required fields are: publisher, subject, contributor names. Thirteen fields relate to the digital object, once it becomes created. The AAPB’s system requires 13 metadata fields to be filled.

There is so much to discuss about metadata, if you have any questions, you can email them to me at selena@kboo.org or tweet them at @selena_sjsu.

Ruby & Nokogiri for Webscraping

As part of the AAPB NDSR fellowship, we residents are afforded personal professional development time to identify and learn or practice skills that will help us in our careers. This is a benefit that I truly appreciate!

ruby-language

Ruby… the jewels theme continues from Perl

I had heard of the many programming and scripting languages like Perl, Python, Ruby, and bash but really didn’t know of examples that showed their power, or applicability. In the past month, I’ve learned that knowing the basics of programming will be essential in data curation, digital humanities, and all around data transformation and management. Librarians and archivists are aware of the vast amount of data: why not utilize programming to automate data handling? Data transformation is useful for mapping and preparing data between different systems, or just getting data in a clearer, easier to read format than what you are presented with.

At the Collections as Data SymposiumHarriett Green presented an update on the HTRC Digging Deeper, Reaching Further Project [presentation slides]. This project provides tools for librarians by creating a curriculum that includes programming in Python. This past spring, the workshops were piloted at Indiana University and University of Illinois–my alma mater :0). I can’t wait until the curriculum becomes more widely available so more librarians and archivists know the power of programming!

Screen Shot 2016-10-17 at 1.32.04 PM.png

But even before the symposium, my NDSR cohort had been chatting about the amounts of data we need to wrangle, manage, and clean up in our different host sites. Lorena and Ashley had a Twitter conversation on Ruby that I caught wind of.  Because of my current project at KBOO, I was interested in webscraping to collect data presented on HTML pages. Webscraping can be achieved by both Python and Ruby. My arbitrary decision to learn Ruby over Python is probably based on the gentle, satisfying sound of the name. I was told that Python is the necessary language for natural language processing. But since my needs were focused on parsing html, and a separate interest in learning how Ruby on Rails functioned, I went with Ruby. Webscraping requires an understanding of the command line and HTML.

  • I installed Ruby on my Mac with Homebrew.
  • I installed Nokogiri.
  • I followed a few tutorials before I realized I had to read more about the fundamentals of the language.

I started with this online tutorial, but there are many other readings to get started in Ruby. Learning the fundamentals of the Ruby language included hands-on programming and following basic examples. After learning the basics of the language, it was time for me to start thinking in the logic of Ruby to compose my script.

Screen Shot 2016-10-17 at 5.25.23 PM.png

From: http://ruby.bastardsbook.com/chapters/collections/
Pieces of data are considered objects in Ruby. These objects can be pushed into an array, or set of data.

As a newbie Ruby programmer, I learned that there is a lot I don’t know, there are better and more sophisticated ways to program if I know more, but I can get results now while learning along the way. For example, another way data sets can be manipulated in Ruby is by creating a hash of values. I decided to keep going with the array in my example.

Screen Shot 2016-10-17 at 5.32.55 PM.png

http://kboo.fm/program lists 151 current on-air programs. I want to see a compact list, in addition to specific program information on the pages seen after clicking on the program name.

So, what did I want to do? There is a set of program data across multiple html pages that I would like to look at in one spreadsheet. The abstract of my Ruby script in colloquial terms is something like this:

  1.  Go to http://kboo.fm/program and collect all the links to radio programs.
  2. Open each radio program html page from that collection and pull out the program name, program status, short description, summary, hosts, and topics.
  3. Export each radio program’s data as a spreadsheet row next to its url, with each piece of information in a separate column with a column header.

My Ruby script and the resulting csv are on my brand new GitHub, check it out!

The script takes about a minute to run through all 151 rows, and I’m not sure if that’s the appropriate amount of time for it to take. I also read that when webscraping, one should space out the server requests or the server may blacklist you–there are ethics to webscraping. I also noticed that I could clean up the array within array data: the host names, topics, and genres still have surrouding brackets around the array.

It took me a while to learn each part of this, and I also used parts of other people’s scripts similar to my need. It also showed me that it takes a lot of trial and error. However, it also showed me that I could work with the logic and figure it out!

There is a lot of data on web pages, and webscraping basics with a programming language like Ruby can help retrieve items of interest and order them into nice csv files, or transform and manipulate them in various ways. Next, I think I can create a similar script that lists all of a program’s episodes with pertinent metadata that can be mapped to a PBCore data model, i.e. episode title, air date, episode description, and audio file location.

Please share any comments you have!

In a recent Flatiron School webinar on Ruby and Javascript, Avi Flombaum recommended these book titles to read on Ruby: The well-grounded Rubyist, Refactoring: Ruby edition, and Practical object-oriented design in Ruby. Learn Ruby the hard way comes up a lot in searches as well.

IASA 2016 Day 1

AAPB NDSR update in podcast form. Day 1 of IASA, the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archivists in Washington, D.C. Duration: 00:05:31

*In the audio, I quote directly from resources listed below, namely the Traditional Knowledge paper and the Mukurtu website. See speech to text software comparisons of IBM Watson, Popup Archive, and Trint.com below.

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The original text of my audio:

Hello, this is Selena Chau, AAPB NDSR resident at KBOO Community Radio sharing my next update via a podcast, as suggested by my wonderful colleague Lorena Ramirez-Lopez. I decided to test out IBM Watson as well, which is a speech to text software that was under consideration by my other cohort colleague Tressa Graves.
 This week, the week of September 26, 2016, we are at IASA, the International Association for Sound and Audiovisual Archives in Washington DC, hosted at the Library of Congress. It’s amazing to be in DC, and I had to walk by the White House during this tumultuous election year, on the same day as the first presidential debate. I commented to a colleague that because archives are guided by the values in our field, our work must continue independent of politics, despite being affected by federal laws, budgets, and policies.
 This being an international conference, it was interesting to learn of the challenges of archives in other countries and archives representing different communities.
 Gila Flam spoke about her challenge of creating a national collection of archived music at the National Sound Archive of Israel. Following the establishment of the State of Israel, a deposit law was enacted. The National Library of Israel must collect material published in Israel, including music. Additionally, the governmental mandate is prioritizing popular music, which the archive is doing on it’s own, manually, without help from music distribution platforms. Gila approximates that there are about 500 new songs created and distributed per month. Ideally there can be development of automatic transmission of music files to the national archive but as of yet there is no efficient workflow.
 Both the International Library of African Music and the Library of Congress talked about repatriation of cultural audio recordings back to the communities, tribes, and cultures that created them.
 Lee Watkins, from the International Library of African Music, presented on repatriation of Hugh Tracey field recordings. Tracey was an important twentieth century ethnomusicologist who went on recording tours throughout Africa to document African music. He founded the International Library of African Music in 1954 and it is now the greatest repository of African music in the world. In addition to preserving Tracey’s original recordings, it supports contemporary fieldwork. During the Q&A of Lee’s presentation, it was noted that the reception to the recordings is mixed, and that some people harbor feelings of inferiority with the association of old culture and traditions, especially compared to urban development.
 The Library of Congress talked about many great things in their panel. I was especially interested in learning about the Traditional Knowledge license and label platform. TK labels recognize that large amounts of Indigenous materials are in the public domain, but may be missing information, or may in fact be misused. Traditional knowledge labels ask all new users of this special material to respect Indigenous protocols and to gather, create, and share responsibly and respectfully. TK labels are one way to navigate the sometimes-confusing arena of Indigenous intellectual property rights in an expanding digital landscape as a practical solution that mediates these often-times tense overlapping fields of practice. Another tool in the field of ethnography is Mututu, an open source content management system built with indigenous communities to manage and share digital cultural heritage.
 The Netherlands institute for sound and vision presented on Re:vive, a remix program initiative that brings public domain or creative commons CC-BY-SA archival audio together with the creative perspectives of local musicians. It reminded me of Philip Glass’ rework album, where Philip asked other music artists to make their own creative takes on his iconic minimalist compositions. In both cases, the collaborators were invited to participate. Philip Glass’ music is still copyrighted, but the RE:VIVE project partners with a record label, makes use of the copious amount of free re-use licensed archival material, and makes compilations available as a free digital download under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share alike license.
 A conversation with the archivist at WFMT Chicago brought up another related project, the Hyperaudio Studs Terkel. This online platform allows drag and drop remixing using Stud’s daily Chicago radio program audio, and encourages creatives to curate and share their interpretations.
 The AAPB NDSR cohort presented on the afternoon of Day 1, which was well received and allowed other conference participants the opportunity to identify and approach us at later times in the conference. It was especially fun to present from behind a Library of Congress podium! We talked in general about our projects, having only gotten 2 months into the work, but we reflected positively on the support and professional network we receive from the cohort model, even when we are geographically dispersed.

The audio file partially transcribed by Watson (Watson can be trained):screen-shot-2016-09-27-at-12-46-24-am

Other Selina Chow an APB and yes our resident at cable to community radio show my next update via podcast. As suggested by my wonderful colleague Loreena Ramirez the pens. I decided to test out IBM Watson as well which is a speech to text software that was under consideration by me other cohort colleague trusting grieves. This week the week of 9/26/2016 we are at I ASA the international association for sound and audio visual archives in Washington DC hosted at the library of Congress. It's amazing to be in DC and I had to walk with the White House during this tumultuous election year on the same day as the first presidential debate. I commented to another colleague that because the archives are guided by the values in our field our work must continue independent of politics despite being affected by federal laws budgets and policies. This being an international conference it was interesting to learn of the challenges of arcades in other countries and archives are presenting different communities. Get the funds took about her challenge of creating a national collection archives music. At the national sound archive of Israel. Following the establishment of the state of Israel a deposit with law was enacted the library of Israel must collect materials published in Israel including music. Additionally the governmental mandate is prioritizing popular music. Which the archive is doing on its own manually without help from music distribution platforms. You let proximity that there are about 500 new songs created and distributed per month. Ideally they can be development of automatic transmission of music files to the National Archives. But as of yet there is no efficient work flow. Both the international labor and African music. And the library Congress talked about repatriation of cultural audio recordings back to the communities tribes and cultures that created them. The Watkins from the international library of African music presented on repatriation of here Tracy killed recordings. Tracy was an important twentieth century ethnomusicologist who went on recording Taurus throughout Africa. To document African music. He founded international library of African music in 1954 and it is now the greatest repository of African music in the world. In addition to preserving Tracy's own original recordings. The library supports contemporary fieldwork. During that you any of these presentation it was noted that the receptions recordings is mixed. And at some people harbor feelings of inferiority with the association of old culture and traditions. Especially compared to urban development and progress. The library Congress talks about many great things in their panel. But I was especially interested in learning about the traditional knowledge license and they will platform or T. K.. TKA labels recognize that large amounts of indigenous materials are in the public domain but maybe missing information or may in fact be misused. Traditional knowledge labels ask only that users of a special material to respect indigenous protocols and together create and share responsibly and respectfully. TKO labels are one way to navigate the sometimes confusing arena of indigenous intellectual property rights. An expanding digital landscape as a practical solution that mediates these oftentimes tens overlapping fields of practice. Another tool in the field at them ethnography is my good to. An open source content management system does indigenous communities to manage and share digital cultural heritage. The Netherlands institute for sound and vision presented on revise our unix program initiative that brings public domain or creative Commons CCDI essay archival audio together. With the creative perspectives of local musicians. It reminded me of Philip glass's rework album where Phillip asked other music artists to make their own creative takes on his iconic minimalist competitions. In both cases the Clarion's were invited to participate. Philip glass's music is still copyrighted obviously but the revived project instead. You makes use of the copious amounts of free reissue licensed archival material from the are kind. Partners with record label and makes compilations available as free downloads. Under a creative Commons attribution sharealike license.

 

The audio file transcribed by Popup Archive:screen-shot-2016-09-27-at-1-12-17-am

00:00:00
 Hello this is Selena Chao APB and DSR residents and Cabu community radio. My next update podcast as suggested by my wonderful colleague Lerena Ramirez Lopez. I decided to test out IAB and Watson as well which is a speech to text software that was under consideration by my other cohort colleague Truscott Greeves this week the week of September 26 2016 we are at Icasa the International Association for a sound and audio visual Archives in Washington D.C. hosted at the Library of Congress. It's amazing to be in D.C. and I had to walk by the White House during this tumultuous election year. On the

00:00:38
 same day as the first presidential debate I commented to another colleague that because the archives are guided by the values in our field our work must continue independent of politics despite be effected by federal laws budgets and policies. This being an international conference it was interesting to learn of the challenges of archives in other countries and our close are presenting in different communities. Flams spoke about her challenge of creating a national collection of archives music at the National Sound Archive of Israel following the establishment of the state of Israel a deposit where law was enacted. The library of Israel

00:01:17
 must collect materials published in Israel including music. Additionally the governmental mandate is prioritizing popular music which the archive is doing on its own. Manually without help from music distribution platforms that approximates that there are about 500 new songs created and distributed per month. Ideally there can be development of automatic transmission of music files to the National Archive but as of yet there is no efficient workflow both for the International Library of African music and the Library of Congress talked about repatriation of cultural audio recordings back to the communities tribes and

00:01:55
 cultures that created them. Lee Watkins from the International Library of African music presented an repatriation of huge Tracy field recordings. Tracey was wasn't important 20th century ethnomusicologist who went on recording tours throughout Africa to document African music. He founded International Library of African music in 1954. And it is now the greatest repository of African music in the world. In addition to preserving Tracy's own original recordings the library supports contemporary fieldwork. During the Q&A of Lee's presentation it was noted that the reception to recordings is

00:02:34
 mixed and that some people harbor feelings of inferiority with the association of old culture and traditions especially compared to urban development and progress. The Library of Congress talked about many great things and their panel. But I was especially interested in learning about the traditional knowledge license and legal platform or T.K. Teekay labels recognized that large amounts of indigenous materials are in the public domain. But maybe missing information or may in fact be misused. Traditional all age labels ask all new users of a special material to respect indigenous protocols and to gather create and share

00:03:13
 responsibly and respectfully Teekay labels are one way to navigate the sometimes confusing arena of indigenous intellectual property rights in an expanding digital landscape. As a practical solution that mediates these oftentimes tense overlapping fields of practice. Another tool in the field at the ethnography is Mikuru and open source content management system built from indigenous communities to manage and share digital cultural heritage. The Netherlands Institute for sound and vision presented on revive a program initiative that brings public domain or creative commons CCPOA essay. Archival

00:03:51
 Audio together with the creative perspectives of local musicians It reminded me of Philip Glass's rework album where Philip asked other music artists to make their own creative takes on his iconic minimalist compositions. In both cases the clairaudience were invited to participate. Philip Glass's music is still copyrighted obviously but the revived project. Instead you makes use of the copious amounts of free reused relicensed archival material from the archive. Partners with record label and makes compilations available as free downloads under a Creative Commons

00:04:29
 Attribution share alike license a conversation with the archivist at WFM to Chicago. Brought up another related project. The Hebra audio of Studs Terkel this online platform allows drag and drop remixing using steads daily Chicago radio program audio and encourages Friedan's to curate and share their interpretations. The APB and D-Star cohort presented on the afternoon of day one which was well-received and allowed other conference participants the opportunity to identify and approach us at later times in the conference. It was especially fun to present from behind a Library of

00:05:06
 Congress podium which is my first time we talked in general about our projects having only gotten two months into the work but we reflected positively on the support and professional network we receive from the cohort model and even when we are geographically dibber dispersed we feel a connection with our cohort colleagues. If you want to learn more about the topics I've talked about please visit the links on this blog page

The audio file transcribed by Trint.com:

screen-shot-2016-09-27-at-11-30-19-pm[00:00:00] Hello this is Selena Chao APB and DSR residents at Cabu community radio. My next update the podcast as suggested by my wonderful colleague Lorena Ramirez Lopez. I decided to test out Ivan Watson as well which is a speech to text software that was under consideration by my other cohort colleague Truscott Greeves. This week the week of September 26 2016 we are at Icasa the International Association for a sound and audio visual Archives in Washington D.C. hosted at the Library of Congress. It's amazing to be in D.C. and I had to walk by the White House during this tumultuous election year. On the same day as the first presidential debate I commented to another colleague that because the archives are guided by the values in our field our work must continue independent of politics despite be effected by federal laws budgets and policies. This being an international conference it was interesting to learn of the challenges of archives in other countries and our archives are in different communities gigaflops spoke about her challenge of creating a national collection of archives music at the National Sound Archive of Israel following the establishment of the state of Israel a deposit with law was enacted. The library of Israel must collect materials published in Israel including music. Additionally the governmental mandate is prioritizing popular music which the archive is doing on its own. Manually without help from music distribution platforms that approximates that there are about 500 new songs created and distributed per month.

[00:01:37] Ideally there can be development of automatic transmission of music files to the National Archive but as of yet there is no efficient workflow both for the International Library of African music and the Library of Congress talked about repatriation of cultural audio recordings back to the communities tribes and cultures that created them. Lee Watkins from the International Library of African music presented an repatriation of huge Tracy field recordings. Tracey was an important 20th century ethnomusicologist who went on recording tours throughout Africa to document African music. He founded International Library of African music in 1954 and it is now the greatest repository of African music in the world. In addition to preserving Tracy's own original recordings the library supports contemporary fieldwork. During the Q&A of Lee's presentation it was noted that the reception to recordings is mixed and that some people harbor feelings of inferiority with the association of old culture and traditions especially compared to urban development and progress. The Library of Congress talked about many great things and their panel. But I was especially interested in learning about the traditional knowledge license and legal platform or T.K. Teekay labels recognized that large amounts of indigenous materials are in the public domain. But maybe missing information or may in fact be misused. Traditional all age labels ask all new users of a special material to respect indigenous protocols and to gather create and share responsibly and respectfully Teekay labels are one way to navigate the sometimes confusing area of indigenous intellectual property rights in an expanding digital landscape. As a practical solution that mediates these oftentimes tense overlapping fields of practice. Another tool in the field at the ethnography is Mikuru and open source content management system built from indigenous communities to manage and share digital cultural heritage.

[00:03:41] The Netherlands Institute for sound and vision presented on revive a remix programme initiative that brings public domain or creative commons CCPOA essay. Archival Audio together with the creative perspectives of local musicians It reminded me of Philip Glass's rework album where Philip asked other music artists to make their own creative takes on his iconic minimalist compositions. In both cases the collaborators were invited to participate. Philip Glass's music is still copyrighted obviously but the revived project. Instead you makes use of the copious amounts of free reused relicensed archival material from the archive. Partners with record label and makes compilations available as free downloads under a Creative Commons Attribution share alike license a conversation with the archivist at WFM to Chicago. Brought up another related project. The Hebra audio of Studs Terkel this online platform allows drag and drop remixing using steads daily Chicago radio program audio and encourages Friedan's to curate and share their interpretations. The APB and DSR cohort presented on the afternoon of day one which was well-received and allowed other conference participants the opportunity to identify and approach us at later times in the conference. It was especially fun to present from behind a Library of Congress podium which is my first time we talked in general about our projects having only gotten two months into the work but we reflected positively on the support and professional network we receive from the cohort model and even when we are geographically dibber dispersed we feel a connection with our cohort colleagues. If you want to learn more about the topics I've talked about please visit the links on this blog page